High blood pressure is a common problem nowadays that is also known as hypertension. When a person is suffering from high Blood pressure, there is an extreme force of blood pushing against the wall of arteries; this force is so high that it can lead to heart diseases or heart attacks. High blood pressure can be determined in your body by following two methods: the amount of your heart pumps the blood and the amount of blood flow resistance in your arteries. If your heart pumps blood in massive amounts and your arteries are narrowed, then blood flow is restricted in this case, and you have to face high blood pressure. Uncontrolled blood pressure can cause serious health problems in the human body. 

Types:  There are two main types of high blood pressure;

  • Primary Hypertension: There isn’t any identifiable cause of high blood pressure in many adults. Primary hypertension tends to develop in the body due to aging or many common issues such as unhealthy habits or not doing exercise regularly. 
  • Secondary Hypertension: Secondary hypertension is more sudden and severe than primary hypertension. There are many reasons behind this problem, such as medication, diseases (like sleep apnea, kidney or hormonal issues, etc.), and drugs.


The causes behind hypertension are given below;

  • Kidney disease
  • Thyroid problems
  • Sleep apnea
  • Defects in blood vessels
  • Using drugs like cocaine and amphetamines
  • Using medication such as decongestants, birth control pills, or cold remedies
  • Diabetes
  • Hormonal problems
  • A diet that is high in salt, cholesterol, or fat
  • Inactive life
  • Obesity
  • Use of tobacco and alcohol
  • Stress

Symptoms: Following are some of the symptoms of high blood pressure;

  • Blur or double vision
  • Nose bleeding
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Chest pain
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Sweating and trouble sleeping
  • Shortness of breath
  • Severe Headache
  • Fatigue
  • Heart palpitation

Many people don’t experience any symptoms of high blood pressure in their body, but the symptoms start to appear when blood pressure reaches a certain level, if anyone who is experiencing these symptoms should immediately consult with a doctor.


A sphygmomanometer can diagnose high blood pressure in the human body. It consists of a stethoscope, pump, arm cuff, dial, and valve that is the most common test available in every clinic nowadays. During this test, a nurse will place a band or cuff tight around your arm. This band is usually attached with a small pump and meter from where she will notice the reading. After placing the cuff around your arm, the cuff compresses the branchial artery and stops the blood flow. Then she squeezed the pump rapidly, noticed the reading on the dial or monitor, and heard it through a stethoscope. There are two numbers used to measure blood pressure. The number present at the top is the systolic reading (the pressure of the blood when your heart squeezes the blood out), and the number at the bottom is known as the diastolic reading (the pressure of the blood when your heart fills with blood).

Range of Blood pressure:

  • If the blood pressure is less than 120mmHg in the systolic reading and less than 80mmHg in the diastolic reading, this blood pressure is normal.
  • If your blood pressure is between 130 to 139mmHg in systolic reading and 80 to 89 mmHg in diastolic reading, you face Stage 1 hypertension.
  • If the blood pressure is more than 140mmHg in systolic reading and more than 90mmHg in diastolic reading, you face Stage 2 Hypertension.
  • If the systolic reading of blood pressure is about 180mmHg and the diastolic reading is more than 120mmHg, then a person in hypertensive crisis needs emergency care.


One of the best ways to treat high blood pressure is a healthy lifestyle. A healthy lifestyle treats blood pressure but is also helpful in defending against many other heart diseases. Use a healthy diet and avoid the significant cause behind increasing your blood pressure. Reduce cholesterol in your body and try to exercise regularly. Take medicines exactly as prescribed by your doctor. This problem can be treated easily if the doctor or patient discovers a significant reason. Avoid taking the irregular medication without a prescription and follow your doctor’s instructions. 

Risk factors: Following are the certain factors that may increase the risk of suffering from high blood pressure/hypertension;

  • Age: There is more chance of suffering from high blood pressure if the patient’s age is more than 60. High blood pressure is most common in men aged about 64 and women older than 65.
  • Race: The issue of ‘high blood pressure’ is more common in blacks at an earlier age as compared to whites due to their food, lifestyle, or other reasons.
  • Family history: If your family members are already suffering from high blood pressure, then there are more chances of developing this problem in you because high blood pressure disease tends to run genes.
  • Overweight: The more blood, oxygen, and nutrients you need to supply to your tissues, the more your weight increases. Fat raises the blood pressure in the human body.
  • Inactive lifestyle: People who have inactive physical life have more chance of developing high blood pressure. The more their heart rate is, the more complex their hearts need to work, and the stronger force put in their arteries. 
  • Use of Alcohol and tobacco: Chewing tobacco and drinking too much alcohol damage your heart. Having more than two drinks per day can seriously affect your blood pressure, and chewing tobacco also increases your blood pressure and damages the lining of your artery wall. Try to avoid both of them as much as possible.
  • Pregnancy: If a woman is pregnant, there is more risk of developing high blood pressure than non-pregnant ones. 
  • Excessive use of salt and less use of potassium in your diet: If you add too much salt to your diet on a daily basis, it can cause your blood to retain a fluid that increases the chance of high blood pressure. The use of potassium helps balance the amount of sodium in your body, leading to a balance in blood pressure.
  • Chronic conditions: Certain chronic conditions increase the risk of high blood pressure in the body, such as kidney disease, sleep apnea, and diabetes.
  • Stress: A high level of stress can increase the risk of high blood pressure. The primary reason behind this issue is eating more and using tobacco and alcohol. Adopt healthy habits to avoid stress.

Complication: The complications caused by high blood pressure are given below;

  • Heart attack or stroke: High blood pressure leads to hardening and thickening of arteries, leading to a stroke or heart attack.
  • Weakened and narrowed blood vessels in kidneys: Due to high blood pressure in the kidney, the weakened and narrowed blood vessels restrict blood flow and prevent the organs from functioning normally.
  • Heart Failure: Your heart has to work harder if it pumps the blood against the high pressure in your vessels; this causes the wall of chambers to thicken. Eventually, the thickened muscles have difficulty pumping enough blood to meet their body needs, resulting in heart failure.
  • Thickened or narrowed blood vessels in the eyes: Having thickened, narrowed, or torn blood vessels in your eyes leads to vision loss.
  • Loss of memory and understanding: People suffering from high blood pressure have more chances to decrease their ability to think, learn, or remember things. They are always having trouble with memory and understanding.
  • Metabolic syndrome: There is a group of disorders in the body’s metabolism, such as high triglycerides, decreased good cholesterol, high blood pressure, high insulin level, and increased waist size. These metabolic issues lead to diabetes, stroke, and heart diseases.
  • Dementia: The blood flow is limited when the arteries are narrowed or blocked; this problem can cause a specific type of dementia. A stroke that interrupts the brain’s blood flow can cause vascular dementia.



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