Varicosities are known as varicose veins, in which the veins become abnormally twisted, crooked, dilated, and enlarged at the skin surface. The blood is overfilled in the varicose veins that are painful, bluish or red, and seems swollen. Especially among women, this problem is widespread that mainly occurs in the legs. 

Types of Varicosities: Varicosities have a different appearances like dilated, crooked, swollen, bluish in color, pain in veins, etc. Depending on their symptoms and variations, many treatments are available to treat varicosities. There are four types of varicosities which are as follows:

  • Moderate varicosities: 
  • Moderate varicosities are large and visible.
  • It is bluish or red.
  • It causes severe health issues if it is not treated on time.
  • It does not allow the blood to flow.
  • Usually, moderate varicosities are treated with endovenous laser treatment and sclerotherapy. 
  • Severe Varicosities:
  • It is a severe type of varicosities that causes severe health issues such as swelling, discoloration, and discomfort to the patient.
  • Different treatment sessions are essential to treat severe varicosities.
  • Pregnancy Varicosities: 
  • During pregnancy, women produce extra blood, which puts pressure on the lower legs and causes varicosities.
  • During this problem, women are more likely to have pelvic congestion syndrome.
  • This type of varicosities is more painful.
  • It can be treated with ultrasound sclerotherapy. 
  • Spider Veins: 
  • This type of varicosities appears like a spider’s web that includes dermatitis and severe aching in veins.
  • It is treated by changing lifestyle, wearing stretchable socks, and endovenous laser treatment. 


Causes of Varicosities:

When veins don’t function properly, varicosities occur. When the valve controlling the backward flow of blood fails, the blood starts collecting in the veins rather than traveling towards the heart. The vein becomes enlarged, dilated, or twisted and appears bluish. This problem primarily affects the lower legs of the patient. Some other causes of varicosities are as follows:

  • Older age above 50
  • During pregnancy 
  • Decrease production of estrogen and progesterone in women
  • Excess body fat/overweight
  • Genetic problem of varicosities
  • Keep standing for a lot of time

During pregnancy, varicosities occur when the baby puts pressure on the mother’s lower legs.

Symptoms of Varicosities: The symptoms of varicosities are as follows:

  • Pain in veins
  • Swelling of veins
  • Achiness in veins
  • Twisted veins
  • Discoloration of veins, usually bluish or red
  • Bleeding from veins (rare case)
  • Formation of ulcer
  • Cramping  in legs
  • Bulging in legs
  • Feeling of burning 

Diagnosis of  Varicosities:

Firstly, the doctor asks about your signs and symptoms of varicosities and takes information about your pain. After that, he will examine the veins in the lower legs. Moreover, the doctor suggests an ultrasound test in which sound waves determine blood flow in your veins and heart. A venogram test is also done for patients to check a clear view of the blood flow in veins. In this test, contrast material is injected into the veins, and performed an X-ray to examine the vein’s strength. These tests are also helpful to determine whether another problem like blood clotting or blockage is present in the lower legs or not.

Treatments of Varicosities: The treatments of varicosities are as follows:

  • Sclerotherapy:  Normally, it is used to treat the small varicose veins and spider veins. In this procedure, the medicine is injected into the veins that shrink. And finally, the damaged veins fade away from the lower legs. It takes more than one month to give its beneficial result to the patient. More than one Sclerotherapy is done in the patient. This therapy is done to treat these symptoms, which are as follows:
  • Swelling in legs
  • Feeling of burning
  • Achiness in veins
  • Pain in veins
  • Microsclerotherapy: This therapy is used to treat varicose veins. It is similar to Sclerotherapy, in which a chemical is directly injected into the enlarged veins, and after some time, the veins become destroyed and disappear. It is beneficial to treat varicose veins below the heart. A tiny needle is used to inject the chemical into the body. The results of Microsclerotherapy are excellent that cure 80% of the patients. It takes more than two or three months to give its beneficial effects.
  • Endovenous Ablation therapy: It is used to close varicose veins in the legs. This therapy burns the enlarged and dilated vein. The doctor suggests this therapy to reduce pain and achiness in your veins. This technique uses radiofrequency to cure varicosities and treat abnormal, twisted veins. After surgery, it leaves no scars and blemishes on the body. The doctor suggests this therapy to treat the following symptoms:
  • Pain in veins
  • Fatigue 
  • Swelling of veins
  • Ulcers in the skin
  • Discoloration of the skin
  • Irritation in the skin
  • Surgery of Varicosities: Surgery is required if lifestyle changes and therapies are not working and pain increases in your veins. To cure varicosities, surgery is done in which anesthesia is given to the patient. Doctors suggest different types of surgeries depending on your symptoms of varicosities.
  1. Vein Ligation: It is a process in which damaged, twisted and enlarged veins are cut down from the skin to prevent overfilled blood veins in the body. It is a minor surgery to treat varicosities in which you will feel pain in your cuts and your legs become swollen. Your doctor suggests medicine to reduce the pain. After the surgery, the doctor does a tight dressing to minimize the wounds and advises taking rest for at least 3 to 7 days at home.  
  2.    Laser surgery: laser surgery is used to treat varicosities. In laser surgery, a beam of light radiation is used to shrink and damage the varicosities. This process takes only one hour. Lose dressing of cuts is done by the surgeon that doesn’t need any stitches. The doctor suggests you icing at home in the cuts to reduce pain or swelling in the legs.
  3. Endoscopic vein surgery: In this technique, a camera is used to view the veins, and damaged veins are removed by minor cuts. This surgery is used when you have a severe ulcer. 

When to see a doctor? Immediately consult your doctor if you have a skin ulcer and your symptoms become severe. If symptoms are not powerful enough, it does not cause any long terms problem. The doctor suggests different treatments depending on your symptoms.

Preventions of Varicosities:

Instead of intense treatments, doctors usually suggest changing lifestyles to prevent varicosities such as;

  • Control your weight
  • Walk regularly
  • Exercise daily for 30 mins-1 hour
  • Maintain a healthy diet
  • Use stretchy socks to maintain blood flow in your lower legs
  • Avoid standing for a more extended period