Stroke

Stroke: Symptoms, causes and treatment

Stroke

A stroke occurs when blood supply to the brain interrupts or reduces due to blockage in blood vessels. Moreover, the damage caused to the blood circulation to the brain and the transfer of oxygen to the tissues leads to severe stroke.

This interruption causes the brain cells to depart in a moment that can be dangerous for the nervous system. If the stroke is treated in the beginning fazes, then it can aid in reducing brain injuries and other possible related illnesses.

Types of Strokes:

  • Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA): This type of stroke contains a blood lump that normally setbacks independently.
  • Ischemic Stroke (IS): It is a stroke that blocks the artery by a clot or a plaque, and its symptoms remain relatively more prolonged than those of a TIA stroke.
  • Haemorrhagic Stroke (HS): HS can occur due to the discharge of the blood vessels that go into the brain.

Stroke Symptoms:

The possible symptoms of a stroke include;

  • Disable to speak and understand other people: An individual might experience a slur or difficulty understanding other people’s talk.
  • Immobility of body organs: An individual might experience immediate numbness, immobility, or weakness in the body that only affects a single side of the body.
  • Difficulty in Vision: A person who has experienced a stroke might also encounter a problem in the vision, such as having blurred, blackened, or double vision.
  • Head pain: An unaccepted headache alongside dizziness or vomiting can be common symptoms of an individual having a stroke.
  • Difficulty in walking: A person might experience a disbalance while walking. People can also feel dizziness or lack of coordination while performing routine physical activities. 

Stroke Causes:

The possible causes of having a stroke are:

  • A blocked artery: This is the most familiar kind of stroke, which occurs when the blood vessels of the brain become thin and causes damage to the flow of blood to the brain. The blood vessels become narrow because of the fatty substance, which develops into a blood clot.
  • Leakage of blood vessels: This happens when the blood vessels in the brain start to discharge or get damaged. This brain haemorrhagic stroke can result from numerous factors that affect the blood vessels, such as blood pressure fluctuation, intense medication for narrowed blood, often known as anticoagulants, aneurysms, accidents, and weakness.
  • Mini-Stroke: It does not cause damage for a longer period. Mini-stroke occurs due to lessening blood circulation to a single side for a limited time frame.

Stroke risk factors:

The possible risk factors which are accompanied by a stroke include the following;

  • Lifestyle changes: The risk of obesity and a lack of performing any physical activity increases the chances for an individual to have a stroke and prevent adequate blood circulation to the blood vessels. Moreover, if a person ever had a drug-taking history or is presently addicted to drinking may have more risk of suffering from a stroke. 
  • Medical risk factors: This includes fluctuations in blood levels, smoking, or an increased rate of cholesterol. Furthermore, it can also increase the risk factors of having sleep apnea and other cardiovascular illnesses, including heart attack, uneven heartbeat, and heart failure.
  • Age groups: Individuals aged fifty-five or above are at higher risk of having a stroke than those who are still young.
  • Gender: Men are more likely to encounter a stroke than women. 

Stroke treatment

1. Preventive medications

Following medications can be used to prevent the risk of having a stroke with the recommendations of doctors:

  • Anti-platelet medicines: Platelets are the cells included in the blood and make a clot. Aspirin can prevent the formation of the clot after the doctor’s prescription.
  • Anticoagulants: Blood-thinning medicines like anticoagulants aid in the reduction of clots formation. Heparin is mostly used in the hospital for short-term fast-acting. Moreover, the want oven can also be used for a longer period as it tends to give the results on a slow basis. These medicines are also helpful in minimizing the risk of bleeding and complications.

2. Preventive Measures

  • Controlling hypertension: This is the most common and effective method to reduce the factors of being diagnosed with a stroke. The changes in lifestyle and treatment can reduce the risk of blood pressure.
  • Lowering cholesterol levels: Taking a diet with low saturated fat and a minimum cholesterol level can help reduce the blockage in the arteries. If an individual cannot bring the cholesterol level down with the help of a healthy diet, then one must take guidance from the consultant. The consultant may prescribe medicines to control the cholesterol level.
  • Quitting smoking: Using tobacco can increase the risk factors of being diagnosed with a stroke. However, if an individual drops tobacco intake, the chances of having a stroke are decreased.
  • Controlling diabetes: Following a healthy diet alongside performing workouts and dropping weight can lower the sugar level and set it in a healthy range. Moreover, if the aforementioned techniques don’t work for an individual, one must try to get in touch with the physician to get the treatment prescription accordingly.
  • Keeping a healthy weight: Maintaining a healthy weight can aid in maintaining a good lifestyle for an individual, as being excess weight can cause a lot of illnesses such as increased blood pressure, diabetes, and other heart diseases such as heart failure, and heart attack.

References:

  • https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/stroke/symptoms-causes/syc-20350113 retrieved on March 27, 2022. 
  • https://www.healthline.com/health/stroke?msclkid=65d1f5dab1d311ecabafdd9b4cd7c252 retrieved on March 27, 2022. 
  • https://www.webmd.com/stroke/news/20030213/got-minute-you-could-diagnose-stroke?msclkid=7ffd600eb1d311eca9a71b1e9d25becb retrieved on March 27, 2022.
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