Mitral stenosis (MS) is also known as mitral valve stenosis. MS is characterized by the barrier to the left ventricular inflow at the level of the mitral valve because of the structural irregularity of the mitral valve apparatus. It means the blood flow between the chambers of the left side of an individual’s heart is damaged. In some individuals, the symptoms are not visible. However, it can lead to abnormal heart rhythm and stroke. MS mainly results from an immune reaction to a bacterial infection and can be diagnosed in newborns and older people.

Most likely to be affected by mitral stenosis are?

Women are more commonly affected by  MS than men. In developing countries, MS is primarily diagnosed in younger adults and people between fifty and sixty. Moreover, in an infant, MS is diagnosed chiefly before two years of age. Individuals with MS in their families are most likely to inherit it. 

How common is mitral stenosis?

The mitral stenosis disorder is an uncommon illness primarily found in developed countries. Mitral stenosis mainly affects about 1 out of every 100,000 in the United States. Furthermore, it is common in developing countries with limited medical care access. 

What are the reasons for mitral stenosis? 

Some of the reasons for mitral stenosis are the following:

  • Bacterial infections: Rheumatic fever, also known as rheumatic MS, is the most common reason for MS. Rheumatic MS occurs when an individual’s immune system destroys the valve while fighting an untreated bacterial infection. Furthermore, rheumatic mitral stenosis worsens over time and causes scarlet fever and strep throat. 
  • Wear and tear due to age: wear and tear of the muscles or damage to the immune system of an individual can be caused due to age factors. The aged population with MS is most likely to have moderate or mild tightening, which may not require any treatment. 
  •  Congenital issues: MS present by birth can typically be detected at 2. Furthermore, children who are not provided with proper health care treatment have the possibility that they may encounter severe MS, which does not give them the chance to survive past age 5.

Typical symptoms of mitral stenosis

Individuals with moderate and mild MS are most likely to have little or no symptoms. Individuals most likely women grow indications during the pregnancy phase because, during that phase, a women’s heart also provides blood to a fetus. However, individuals who encounter -symptoms of MS primarily include the following:

  • Tiredness: Individuals can experience fatigue while performing their daily routine tasks. By only performing simple daily tasks, an individual can become tired. 
  • Shortness of breath: Can be experienced by an individual primarily while performing physical activity and workout or when an individual is lying. 
  • Bronchitis is a disorder that usually falls between pneumonia and cold. However, if individuals are diagnosed with MS, they are most likely to have such infections. 
  • Heart palliations: Heart palliation is when an individual becomes unpleasantly aware of their heartbeat. It usually happens when MS puts excessive pressure on the upper left chamber of an individual’s heart, leading to irregular heart rhythm, known as atrial fibrillation. 
  •   Stroke: When the upper chamber of an individual’s heart is under increased blood pressure, it can cause clotting in an individual, usually because of the reduction in an individual’s blood flow. Furthermore, the clotting can then be transferred from the heart of an individual to the brain, where it can cause a stroke.
  • Coughing blood: Coughing blood can be due to inadequate blood flow that puts pressure not just on the upper chamber of the heart as well on the veins in an individual’s lungs. 
  • Swelling in an individual’s ankles, abdomen, or feet: The swelling in the feet, stomach, or ankle of an individual can be due to the individual’s heart being unable to pump enough blood, causing fluid to build up.


Children born with mitral stenosis can have the following indications:

  • Cough.
  • Trouble feeding or sweating while feeding.
  • Delayed growth. 
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Respiratory infections.

How rapidly does mitral stenosis progress?

The symptoms of mitral stenosis progress slowly and are visible for years or even decades, especially if an individual encounters rheumatic fever. Most individuals don’t develop MS for at least twenty to forty years after experiencing rheumatic fever. Furthermore, suppose an individual is diagnosed with MS. In that case, the disease progress rapidly. About 80% of the population does not survive more than ten years after the appearance of their symptoms. 

How to diagnose mitral stenosis?

The health care provider or the cardiologist would first study an individual’s symptoms to detect MS. Afterward, the cardiologist would perform the following tests to diagnose MS. 

  • Echocardiogram: This test is carried out with the help of ultrasound waves which gives the cardiologist an insight into an individual’s heart.
  • Physical test: During the physical examination, the health care provider will use a stethoscope to listen to the individual’s heartbeat and breathing and detect a heart murmur. Furthermore, severe cases can lead to more than one sound as part of the murmur. 
  • ECG or EKG: ECG or EKG, also known as an electrocardiogram, is used to measure the electric activity of an individual’s heart. The electrocardiogram can also help detect the heart rhythm or any problem linked with MS. 
  • X-ray: The health care provider is most likely to carry out a chest X-ray to have an insight view of the changes that are developed in an individual’s body. Furthermore, the consultant can measure the pressure inside an individual’s heart and detect MS. 
  • Cardiac catheterization: Cardiac catheterization can be performed by using a device inserted into one of the blood vessels threaded up to an individual’s heart. It can help the health care provider to measure the pressure within an individual’s heart and identify MS. 

How is mitral stenosis treated?

Mitral stenosis can not be cured, but there are possibilities to manage it. The following treatment can be utilized to treat mitral stenosis:

  • Medication: medication can help in reducing some symptoms of mitral stenosis. Medicines treat heart failure symptoms, high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythm, and blood thinners. 
  • Catheter-based procedures: This medication process involves a device to intersect inside an individual’s artery. Moreover, the catheter is then threaded up to an individual’s heart. 
  • Surgery: The health care advisor can use different methods of surgery, as well as robotically assisted surgery and minimally invasive surgery. The surgery mostly depends upon the patient’s condition. 




retrieved on 12 august 2022


retrieved on 12 august 2022


retrieved on 12 august 2022

  • https://www.mayoclinic.o HYPERLINK “″/diseases-conditions/mitral-valve-stenosis/symptoms-causes/syc-20353159#:~:text=Mitral%20valve%20stenosis%20%E2%80%94%20sometimes%20called,of%20breath%2C%20among%20other%20problems.

retrieved on 12 august 2022